Fairtrade and Climate Justice
Based on Research by Dr Oliver Moore
The majority of greenhouse gas emissions have occurred in the last 30 years, and, since records began in 1850, over 90% of emissions have come from the places like Europe, US, (G8). Those who have contributed the least to the carbon crises should not have to pay the highest price to try and resolve it. Yet, vulnerable rural populations in the global south are currently paying the highest price. Climate impacts are being seen in more frequent chaotic climate events like hurricanes, drought and floods. And these are being added to pre-existing vulnerabilities like poverty, exclusion and exploitation. Fundamentally, climate justice and a Just Transition need to include trade and economic justice, to ensure opportunities for everyone.
Fairtrade And Climate Justice
A Just Transition – Redressing historical injustices
A Just Transition has to take into account the ongoing impact of historical injustices and their living legacies in extreme poverty and economic exclusion. Clearly, the environmental damage caused by the wealthy world’s more excessive development models, including in particular the extraction and use of fossil fuels, has brought us to the point where we facing climate breakdown and ecological collapse. The people who caused and benefited the least from this, are now the ones who are suffering the most from it. There is thus an onus on the wealthiest nations and industrial sectors, to deal with the mess it has created, a mess still felt most acutely in the rural global south.
Just transition then, means economic, trade and climate justice coming together. It needs both climate mitigation and climate adaptation. It accepts that the global south is justified in focusing more on climate adaptation, as it has contributed so little to the green-house gas emissions load in the atmosphere. In seeking to balance the climate, trade- and economic balance sheets – the 92% of global-north historic emissions – compared to the 8% historic emissions from global-south – should be the reference point in defining adaptive strategies for different parts of the world.
In Ireland for example, “We emit more greenhouse gases than the poorest 400 million people on the planet. Almost unique in the EU, Ireland is failing to meet its obligations and is increasing its greenhouse gas emissions” according to Professor John Sweeney, Ireland’s leading climate change expert and member of the IPCC.
Where are we Now – Environmental Stresses
Greenhouse gas emissions and the need for the necessary reductions, need to be seen within an historical emissions, climate and trade justice framework. We must enable the significant improvement of social, economic and environmental situations for those in the poorest parts of the world for a just global transition to mean anything.
The vast majority of greenhouse gas emissions have come from the wealthy countries described as the Global North – the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) figures from1850 onwards estimate that 92% of excess emissions have come from this source. And while some parts of what is traditionally called the global south are speeding up their emissions- the BRIC countries of Brazil, Russia, India, China – clearly climate and other environmental stresses are impacting rural farmers and land workers in the global south especially hard. (Hickel 2020)
Today, carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are at their highest level in at least 800,000 years; temperature records are constantly being broken in recent years, including in the arctic where unprecedented wildfires rage; wildfires and storms are more severe and may be causing other more severe weather occurrences;
Stronger and more frequent weather extremes, from hurricanes to drought, temperature highs to flooding – are felt more, and with more severity, in the tropics: “The number of exceptionally hot days are expected to increase the most in the tropics…extreme heatwaves are thus projected to emerge earliest in these regions, and they are expected to already become widespread there at 1.5°C global warming (high confidence)” the IPCC states. Moreover, socio-economically it is more difficult for the rural poor to find the resources to both mitigate and adapt to climate change. The Tropics, the band of countries that lie within 10 degrees north or south of the equator, is where most commodities like coffee and cocoa are grown.
Environment and Biodiversity
With biodiversity it is a similar story for insects, birds and mammals. Over half of Europe’s farmland birds have disappeared since 1980, globally it is estimated that over 40% of all insects are threatened with extinction, and a 2018 study reveals that farmed poultry today makes up 70% of all birds on the planet, with just 30% being wild. The picture is even more stark for mammals – 60% of all mammals on Earth are livestock, mostly cattle and pigs, 36% are human and just 4% are wild animals. The interlocked nature of these crises is evidenced by the fact that climate change is a key driver of biodiversity loss, after invasive species and land use change.
Producers in Sub-Saharan Africa
Producers in countries in Sub Saharan Africa face the most challenging circumstances of any commodity producers. In economic terms we see price volatility, increasing costs, low margins, lack of organising, and concurrently, a lack of access to affordable finance. These lead to increasing debt, more precarious work and lives, child labour and involuntary migration, among other severe problems. (OECD 2019) Environmentally, weather extremes brought on by increased climate breakdown; biodiversity loss and pollutants all impact on the ability to produce, from availability of clean water to changes in pest and disease behaviour.
Socially, these climate changes impact the role of women and children everywhere. Rural women globally produce more food and work longer hours, yet have less of a say and less power in family and work/business life in much of the global south (UN FAO). Child labour is still too often a fact of life, out of economic necessity or more exploitative reasons, prevalent in cocoa production in West Africa. In the worst cases in west Africa, this still includes forced labour in cocoa plantations.
Fairtrade and Climate Justice
Fairtrade has its role to play here, in helping right the economic wrongs and also in contributing to climate mitigation and adaptation.
The Fairtrade standards have rightly been focused on issues of economic justice from their inception. Moreover, it is a democratic right of the producer organisations to decide how to spend their premiums – which is how it should be. Finally, as has been established, a climate adaptation focus is justified in a climate justice context. Importantly, emissions from transport make up a small part of agri-foods overall green house gas emissions. Referencing the largest yet data set of food green house gas emissions, with data drawn from more than 38,000 commercial farms in 119 countries, Richie (2020) points out that transport is overall “a small contributor to emissions. For most food products, it accounts for less than 10%” of the overall total. (drawn from Poole and Nemecek 2018)
Fairtrade’s economic tools are part of necessary climate justice approaches
Fairtrade has primarily been focused on greatest needs of the rural poor in the global south, so economic justice has been the core focus. Fairtrade is a partnership that generates a minimum price and price premium. Minimum price gives stability, which allows farmers to plan and potentially borrow with a price guarantee behind them. The Fairtrade Premium is an additional sum of money which goes into a communal fund for workers and farmers to use – as they see fit – to improve their social, economic and environmental conditions.
For cocoa, price premium and minimum price both increased recently: In 2019, as part of our effort to achieve decent incomes, we raised the Fairtrade Minimum Price for cocoa by 20 percent to US$2,400 per MT (FOB), and the Fairtrade Premium – also by 20 percent – to US$240 per MT.
Towards Living Incomes
But more is needed. As a frontrunner in promoting economic justice, Fairtrade is actively working towards establishing living incomes for producers and workers. This work has been ongoing since 2012; in 2017 a Living Income Strategy was developed. The work is being piloted in west African cocoa and the ways of working towrads living income are set out here).
Living Income – A Definition
Living income is defined as sufficient income generated by a household to afford a decent standard of living for the household members. Elements of a decent standard of living include: food, water, housing, education, health care, transport, clothing, and other essential needs, including provision for unexpected events.
A Living Income Reference Price is based on the following key parameters:
- Cost of a decent standard of living (living income benchmark)
- Sustainable yields (productivity benchmark)
- Viable farm size (to fully employ the available household labour)
- Cost of sustainable production (in order to achieve the above mentioned yields).
Fairtrade estimates that in addition to its increased minimum price and premium for cocoa, an additional Living Income Reference Price (LIRP) of US$300 a ton is needed
This living income work is progressing with a number of companies now involved. Tony Chocolonely are now paying a living income differential, Ben & Jerry announcing in November 2020 a commitment to paying a higher price, an additional $600,000 over the next year to their 5,000 cocoa farmers. Way to go! Retailer LIDL’s latest range, is not only Fairtrade, but also contributes a supplementary premium of their own to move towards a living income. Lidl are working with the Kuapa Kokoo farmers’ cooperative.
Fairtrade has developed a voluntary climate standard with multiple wins including carbon insetting. This climate standard is intended for companies who have already made efforts to mitigate their carbon emissions and is a further way to support smallholders and rural communities to produce Fairtrade Carbon Credits and gain access to the carbon market.
Projects eligible for generating Fairtrade carbon credits fall into three categories:
- Renewable energy projects such as solar thermal heating/electricity, solar photovoltaic, wind energy, hydropower, biogas heating/electricity
- Energy efficiency projects such as improved cookstoves, water filtration/purification systems, energy saving lamps/fluorescent lamps
- Forestry projects such as planting trees or replanting trees in a previously forested area
Many of these have the added benefit of being socio-economically, and, in gender and health terms, positive actions in themselves. Watering firework is time consuming and sometimes dangerous work conducted by women and children; moreover, open fires shorten lives though smoke inhalation and increase deforestation due to heat loss.
Importantly, companies purchasing Fairtrade Carbon Credits at the end of the supply chain must put in place a credible plan to reduce their emissions and increasingly compensate their emissions with Fairtrade Carbon Credits.
Climate Change Academies and Leadership
These are couple of examples of how Fairtrade has developed Climate Change Academies which help small producer organisations to make effective decisions around climate change; introduce disaster risk management and sustainable farming practices; increase use of renewable energies; increase income generating resilience activities such as diversification; develop best practice guides. These will help organisations transition sustainably.
Fairtrade and The Environment
It is also important to point out that there are both a significant and increasing number of environmental components to the Fairtrade standards: a quarter of the criteria of the Fairtrade Standard for Small Producer Organisations (v1.5) are already environmental criteria, covering issues such pest management, pesticide use, soil management, water use, biodiversity and more. Many of these environmental components, of soil, water, pesticides and so on, were added recently, in 2019.
In fact, of the 45 new elements to the standards added in 2019, one in three are environmental including;
- minimising the use of herbicides
- identifying land at risk of erosion
- implementing measures to enhance soil fertility
- training members on sustainable water use
- avoiding deforestation or impact on carbon storing ecosystems
- preventing deforestation
- protecting and enhancing biodiversity
- adapting to climate change and reducing green house gas emissions
Work is also being done to improve data collection, monitoring and evaluation and so on, to make positive environmental impacts more measurable. There are strong and increasing synergies with other environmental standards, in particular with organic certification.
Fairtrade and the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
Given the breath of Fairtrade’s work, we have touch points across all seventeen SDGs. However given our focus on supporting marginalised farmers and workers, we are emphasising our role the 8 SDGs Fairtrade focuses on
Farmer organisations spend a significant amount of the extra money they receive in areas covered by the SDGs, this investment is shown as percentages roughly on which SDGs the premium is spent on.
A Fair Guide to Christmas 2020
There’s thousands of Fairtrade products to choose from out there that would make beautiful and thoughtful gifts for you and your loved ones – here are a few ideas if you’re looking!
EXPLODING TREE CRAFT CHOCOLATE SELECTION BOX
If you’re a supporter of fair and local Exploding Tree’s selection box is the perfect gift for you! Exploding Tree is a small Irish business and Fairtrade licensee based in Clonakilty and all of their products use 100% Fairtrade cocoa and organic coconut sugar and come in biodegradable packaging too.
Where to buy: Exploding Tree, selected health stores.
Give your home a festive feel with a beautiful poinsettia plant which comes with a lovely reusable flowerpot. The Fairtrade certified Poinsettia cuttings come from the Wagagai Fairtrade farm in Uganda and are grown in O’Connor Nurseries in Gorey Co Wexford. The farm started in 2000 selling roses and started to cultivate a wider variety of blooms, including poinsettia cuttings, to increase sustainability. Wagagai is the largest employer in Uganda in the floricultural sector, and currently employs over 2100 people, 70% of whom are women.
Where to buy: Aldi
WAY TO GO! BARS
Lidl’s newly launched Way To Go! bars come in four fantastic flavours (Caramelised Almonds and Sea Salt is the current favourite of the Fairtrade Ireland team). In addition to paying a Fairtrade Minimum price and a Fairtrade Premium, Lidl will also be paying an additional premium, in a step towards achieving living income for cocoa farmers in West Africa.
In its first year of sales in Ireland, the Way To Go! bar will benefit approximately 440 individual cocoa farmers, 25% whom are women.
Where to buy: Lidl
Why not pick some Bewley’s coffee? Bewley’s have a huge range of 100% Fairtrade coffee, whether you’re looking for single origin or a blend, and available in ground, instant, espresso pods or even ready to grind coffee beans! You’ll be supporting another Irish company and it will be perfect if you’re in need of a pick me up after an early start to see what Santa has left on Christmas morning
Where to buy: Bewley’s, any major Irish retailer
SUPERVALU RESERVE BLEND FAIRTRADE TEA
Pick up a box of Fairtrade tea to enjoy with your favourite Christmas treats, from Fairtrade chocolates to mince pies it’s the perfect match.
Where to buy: Supervalu
TESCO FINEST FAIR TRADE SOUTH AFRICAN MALBEC
Tesco Finest’s Fairtrade Wines are a great gift or a lovely treat for yourself over the festive season and we think this South African Malbec would go perfectly with our next idea!
Where to buy: Tesco
Tony’s Chocolonely are a fantastic brand who not only make delicious chocolate perfect for sharing but are also on a mission to make 100% slave-free chocolate the norm – who wouldn’t want to support that?!
Where to buy: Selected Supervalu, Spar and Fresh stores, Brown Thomas and Easons
ORGANIC FAIRTRADE MULLED WINE SACHETS (BOX OF 5) STEENBERGS
These Organic Fairtrade Mulled Wine Sachets are easy to use and perfect for Christmas. Use them in a nice warm drink with or without wine, or use them to flavour fruit while stewing for a lovely seasonal crumble!
Where to buy: Fallon & Byrne, Veganic, Steenberg
This year the Rediscovery Centre have made up some gorgeous hampers with a mix of Fairtrade and local products, along with some sustainable treats too!
Where to buy: The Rediscovery Centre
There are loads more different Fairtrade products available in all kinds of outlets, so it’s never been easier to find something for a Christmas stocking, Kris Kindle, for under the tree or just for the larder.
And if you’re out doing your Christmas shopping why not grab a nice cup of 100% Fairtrade coffee to keep you going from Bewley’s, Butlers, Insomnia, Puro, AMT Coffee, Esquires or an independent coffee shop that supports Fairtrade!
MORE DOUGH FOR COCOA FARMERS
Together with Ben & Jerry’s we’re on a mission to make a living income possible for cocoa farmers in West Africa
At Fairtrade, we believe that all farmers should be paid fairly for their work and have the opportunity to afford a decent standard of living. Our mission is to ensure that farmers are able to earn a living income, starting with cocoa farmers in West Africa. That means earning sufficient to cover all of their cocoa farming costs and basic needs.
Most of the world’s cocoa is grown in developing nations, places like Cote d’Ivoire, where there are few protections for smallholder farms. Almost all cocoa farmers live off the profit they make from their crop, which varies every year based on factors they cannot control, such as weather and commodity prices. Yet the average cocoa farmer there is trapped in a deeply unfair global trading system, earning less than €0.90 cent a day, which is less than half of what is required for a living income.
Often farmers are unable to pay for their daily needs, let alone invest in new equipment or methods that might be better able to respond to the effects of the climate crisis. Erratic rainfall, drought, and deforestation are making life even harder for cocoa farmers
Since 2012, we’ve been developing work on living incomes. In 2017 we launched Fairtrade’s Living Income Strategy and outlined a roadmap for making tangible progress towards living incomes for cocoa farmers. We’ve since made important strides in developing and implementing interventions and tools to raise the bar and we are partnering with forward-looking businesses on this journey.
So we’re super excited to be working with our friends at Ben & Jerry’s who have committed to paying a higher price, an additional $600,000 over the next year to their 5,000 cocoa farmers. This amount is on top of both the annual Fairtrade Premium of around $970,000 (paid on their chocolate ice cream mix) and the Ivorian government’s minimum price for cocoa that all companies are required to pay. The extra money that farmers will now receive is an important part of Ben & Jerry’s wider efforts to support farmers towards closing the living income gap. Pretty sweet, right?
Since the early days, Ben & Jerry’s has focused on more than simply delighting fans’ taste buds. A big part of that is ensuring that their farmers, suppliers, employees, and communities are taken care of too. It all comes down to what they call linked prosperity.
Fairtrade partnered with Ben & Jerry’s years ago to source five major ingredients: Cocoa, bananas, coffee, vanilla and sugar. Fairtrade means better prices, decent working conditions, local sustainability, and fair terms of trade for farmers and workers in the developing world. So, whenever you see the Fairtrade mark on the side of one of Ben & Jerry’s tubs you know that the farmers who produce the ingredients are receiving the Fairtrade Price and Premium – income that supports farmers in improving environmental practices and adapting to a changing climate.
Fairtrade farmers agree to follow a set of standards that empower producers and benefit the environment and their community. In return, they receive a Fairtrade Premium, an extra amount of money on top of the selling price of their ingredients that they can use to invest in business or community projects.
Ben & Jerry’s Fairtrade Premiums make up between 1% – 2% of the total Fairtrade Premiums in the world. That Premium can make a huge difference. One cocoa co-op that they work with in Cote d’Ivoire was able to build a new medical clinic, hire a nurse, install solar panels, and purchase a water pump.
For many farmers, the Fairtrade Premium is life-changing, perhaps even life-saving. And now Ben & Jerry’s are exploring ways to do more. Now they are working with Fairtrade to pay a higher price to support their linked prosperity cocoa farmers on their journey towards a living income.
What is a Living Income?
Fairtrade define a living income as “sufficient income to afford a decent standard of living for all household members – including a nutritious diet, clean water, decent housing, education, health care and other essential needs, plus a little extra for emergencies and savings – once the farm costs are covered.” That “extra” is a big deal too: It means farmers are able to take care of their businesses, their communities, and the environment we share.
In short, a living income is about making sure cocoa farmers receive enough for today, and a chance to plan for the future.
Why we’re starting with cocoa farmers
Ben & Jerry’s want to be able to do the same for all of their Fairtrade farmers. But for now, cocoa feels like the right place to start, for two big reasons:
- Cocoa, no surprise to all the chocolate lovers out there, is one of Ben & Jerry’s major ingredients.
- Cocoa growers are particularly vulnerable to climate change and fluctuations in the global market.
As part of Ben & Jerry’s new price commitment for the cocoa, they will work closely with us at Fairtrade to evaluate and be sure they are making a positive difference to the 5,000 linked prosperity cocoa farmers.
How You Can Help
Every year, across all Ben & Jerry’s products, your purchases help empower about 210,000 farmers globally. We get to enjoy the delicious ingredients in our ice cream, and they get to invest in the health and prosperity of their families and communities.
All of which is to say, that Fairtrade matters! Next time you’re enjoying a delicious scoop of ice cream, remember that by choosing Fairtrade, you’re choosing the world you want to see, where cocoa farmers, their families, and their communities can build a better future.
Taste A Change In Chocolate.. Lidl’s four new ‘Way To Go’ chocolate bars launched in Ireland.
By all accounts, cocoa farmers in West Africa get very little for their cocoa beans. It is estimated there are over 2 million cocoa farmers in the Ivory Coast and Ghana and the majority are living on less than half the World Bank extreme poverty level of US$ 1.90 a day.
By all accounts cocoa farmers need to earn more money, and preferably to earn a living income which would only be US$2.50 a day in the Ivory Coast.
But how do we get there?
In February this year Fairtrade Ireland published a report – Craving A Change In Chocolate – about the cocoa farmers in West Africa who produce about 70% of the world’s cocoa. Key among the reports’ recommendations is that we need partnerships for change between organisations like Fairtrade and businesses like Lidl Ireland who sell chocolate.
In response, Lidl Ireland has introduced Way To Go!, their brand-new permanent range of Fairtrade chocolate bars that aim to help cocoa farmers close the gap towards a living income, by adding in an extra sum of money per tonne on top of the Fairtrade minimum price and premium.
This new ‘Way To Go’ initiative gives us all in Ireland the chance to support a new approach in trying to ensure living incomes for cocoa farmers. On its own it won’t change the world, but it is an example of a way to go forward. With this chocolate, about 440 individual cocoa farmers, 25% of whom are women, will benefit in the first year. When we support it, it will encourage Lidl and other chocolate suppliers to go further in supporting the cocoa farmers in their supply chains.
We think it’s the Way To Go because there is an extra US300 a ton on top of the Fairtrade minimum price and premium to support livelihoods and diversification into soap making, bee keeping and honey production.
It’s the Way To Go because it is supporting innovation for cocoa farmers and chocolate brands alike.
It’s the Way To Go because the cocoa is fully traceable to the Kuapa Kokoo cooperative in the Konongo region of Ghana.
It’s the Way To Go because at EUR1.99 a bar it is an affordable treat!
We all love Bananas
I love bananas! Other than being rich in vitamin B6, bananas are a good source of vitamin C, dietary fibre and magnesium. They’re one of the most popular fruits in the world, and many people can’t contemplate a morning without one. Bananas are also a staple food for millions of people, and a major export that forms the cornerstone of many countries’ economies.
Since reading, Harriet Lambs (Former Executive Director of Fairtrade Foundation) book ‘Fighting the Banana Wars and Other Fairtrade Battles’ back in 2009, I vowed to never eat a non-Fairtrade banana again! 11 years later and I have stubbornly stuck to my guns! The great thing is it’s now very easy to make this choice as every supermarket chain in Ireland is selling delicious Fairtrade Bananas so it’s a no brainer!
We are delighted to see the continuing growth of 20% in Fairtrade banana sales here in 2019. The huge growth in Dunne’s Stores sales of 50%, and 25% growth in SuperValu is very positive. But given their much smaller market share of just 11%, Lidl continues to be the market leader for Fairtrade bananas with 29% of total sales in Ireland followed by ALDI and Tesco. (See charts below)
Our wish list here in Ireland is that some inspiring supermarket will make the switch to 100% Fairtrade bananas. The reason is simple; the higher sales volumes are, the more benefits accrue to the farmers.
Bananas are grown on both small-scale farms as well as large plantations. But a highly competitive market creates price pressure on bananas, ultimately putting the squeeze on banana growers.
The banana industry is labour-intensive and demanding. Climate change and plant diseases threaten yields, while large multinationals wield considerable influence in a sector that requires significant infrastructure to harvest and transport the quick-ripening fruits. Retailers often offer deep discounts on bananas, sometimes selling below cost to attract customers. Together, these factors put banana producers in a bind.
Fairtrade banana producers are paid a Fairtrade Minimum Price that acts as a safety net against falling prices. Plantation workers and small-scale banana farmers also receive a Fairtrade Premium an extra sum of money that farmers and workers invest in business or community projects of their choice. Banana farmers and workers often use the Premium to improve their housing, build schools and clinics, or offer other benefits they see a need for.
In 2018 an extra €32 million was earned by banana producers through Fairtrade sales globally. Ireland’s contribution to that is about €500,000.
Currently there are about 25,000 small farmers and workers in the Fairtrade system. Nearly all of the Fairtrade bananas sold in Ireland are also organic.
From strengthening workers’ representation to supporting farmers to mitigate the impacts of climate change, every Fairtrade banana you buy contributes to improving the lives of the workers and farmers behind this favourite fruit.
12 Fairtrade Chocolate Choices You Can Make In Your Local Shop
We’ve all been there – it’s Friday, we’ve been at work all week, we deserve a treat. But a treat for us shouldn’t be at the expense of others. We don’t want exploitation and poverty to be the cost of our chocolate bar.
Cocoa farmers typically work gruelling days but don’t earn enough to provide the basics for their families or give opportunities to their children. When you choose Fairtrade chocolate, you know that you are making a difference to farmers’ lives and supporting a brighter future for their families.
Here are some of the Fairtrade chocolate bars you can find in local shops, so when you’re next craving a well-deserved treat you can make the ethical and fair choice because cocoa farmers deserve a living income.
We all know and love these honeycomb-centred balls of yumminess. And they’re available almost everywhere! Look for the Fairtrade Mark.
M&S has a selection of Fairtrade chocolate including their Single Origin range. Try the Gianduja chocolate with Italian hazelnuts or the white chocolate with pistachios.
Lidl has a wide range of chocolate that, through the Fairtrade Cocoa Programme, enables small-scale farmers to benefit by selling more of their cocoa as Fairtrade. Choose from JD Gross and the Fin Carre range.
Holland & Barrett
If you’re after a vegan option, pick up a bar of Vego from Holland & Barrett. While you’re there, pick up a tub of vegan hazelnut chocolate spread. Both are organic as well as Fairtrade and delicious – so they really tick all the boxes!
Chocolate and Love
Chocolate and Love pride themselves on sourcing some of the world’s finest organic, ethically sourced ingredients to produce their award-winning Fairtrade bars, available in Nourish.
Try one ofAldi’s delicious ‘Moser Roth’ range of Fairtrade single origin chocolate bars. Choose from either Ghana, Dominican Republic or Peru.
Tony’s Chocolonely, is made with a mission to end slavery in the cocoa industry, and with Belgian Fairtrade dark, dark milk and milk chocolate bars. Another bonus is that it is all plastic-free, recyclable packaging. Available in selected Super Valu and SPAR stores as well as through independent retailers like Fresh Stores, Brown Thomas and Avoca
SPAR has launched the SPAR Natural product line in stores throughout the country. The new instore range includes 3 chocolate bars! Available nationwide!
Award-Winning ‘Exploding Tree’c hocolate from Bean to Bar produced by Clonakilty chocolatier Allison Roberts. Available in Nourish, The Hopsack, Dublin food coop and specialty shops throughout Ireland.
Green & Blacks – look for the Fairtrade Mark
Divine – look out for their milk chocolate with orange bar!
A Starbucks near your office? Pop in for your afternoon treat. Snack-sized milk and dark chocolate bars available, look for the Fairtrade Mark.
Fairtrade producers raise their voices to ask Nestle to keep Kitkat Fairtrade
“As Fairtrade producers, our voice is heard and taken into account. We are treated with the respect and dignity we deserve.”
After a decade of sourcing cocoa and sugar for KitKat in the UK and Ireland, Nestlé have informed Fairtrade they no longer plan to buy Fairtrade cocoa and sugar from some of the world’s most vulnerable small scale farmers.
The move will mean a loss of almost €1.95 million in Fairtrade Premium each year for co-operatives in Côte d’Ivoire, Fiji and Malawi, representing 27,000 small scale producers. This income is a real lifeline for some of the world’s poorest farmers.
Nestlé and Fairtrade have made a much-needed difference to farmers’ lives in the last 10 years. Cocoa cooperatives have benefitted from the safety net of the Fairtrade Minimum Price and the Premium has meant communities have been able to invest in classrooms, dispensaries, canteens, and programmes to help women increase and diversify their income.
Right now, Fairtrade Premiums are providing tangible support for farmers at this difficult time. Because producers can choose themselves how to spend the Fairtrade Premium, they have been able to act quickly during the Covid-19 crisis to protect their health, support their communities and compensate for disruption to income. As a result, farmers and their cooperatives have been able to buy protective equipment, distribute hand-sanitizers, raise awareness and support families struggling due to illness. The Fairtrade Premium is unique in guaranteeing farmers full control over how they choose to invest it in their communities and farms.
Nestlé’s decision will mean all future purchases of sugar will be from European sugar beet producers, meaning cane sugar farmers will not only lose the Fairtrade Premium, but could lose access to market to sell their sugar. Future purchases of cocoa may be from the same co-operatives, but only as part of Nestlé’s own Cocoa Plan initiative, meaning no Fairtrade Premium. Cocoa farmers expressed some grave concerns when they were first told about Nestlé’s decision at a joint meeting in May. They clearly stated how worried they are about the resulting income gap and the loss of freedom to decide how the Premium is spent. When a typical cocoa farmer in West Africa lives below the extreme poverty line and earns on average 74p per day – less than half of a living income, but only a few pence more than the price of a KitKat – it is not surprising cocoa farmers are so anxious about losing further income through this move.
Writing on behalf of Ivorian cocoa farmers, Atse Ossey Francis, Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Ivorian Fair Trade Network, said: “It is with deep regret and deep concern that we have learned that after proudly producing cocoa for KitKat in the UK and Ireland for a decade, small cocoa farmers in Côte d’Ivoire will no longer enjoy the benefits of selling their cocoa on Fairtrade terms. Nestlé is one of the leading buyers of Fairtrade certified cocoa through its KitKat brand and we are grateful for all this decade of partnership where we have contributed to the success of Nestlé. A non-Fairtrade trade relationship means regression and continued poverty.
“We invite Nestlé to continue negotiating with us producer representatives and the Fairtrade label in order to find ways of agreement so as to reconsider their decision not to buy on Fairtrade terms. We ask Nestlé to continue the incredible work that has been done over the past 10 years so as not to cut the lifeline of the Fairtrade Premium at a time when we producers need it most! “
Besides the new global health pandemic, farmers remain deeply affected by long-term endemic poverty, lack of services, low and unpredictable income and climate change. Fairtrade means access to children’s education, access to health centres, electricity to enable children to learn, as well as improved living and working conditions for farmers in the most remote areas where cocoa is grown.
Fairtrade has the highest fixed Premium of any independent certification scheme in cocoa, currently $240 per tonne – that goes directly to the producers cooperatives on top of market price- coupled with a Minimum Price that protects farmers if world markets collapse. Fairtrade started campaigning publicly for Living Incomes for cocoa farmers in 2017 and was the first to publish a Living Income reference price. We are already working with businesses to pilot a Living Income for cocoa farmers. Research from Fairtrade International shows that the overall financial value to Ivorian Fairtrade cocoa cooperatives and their farmer members increased by almost 35 percent in 2019.
Atse continued: “Fairtrade is 50% owned by producers, giving us them power to make our own decisions for our organisations, families and communities, giving us the opportunity to raise the voice of small producers. As Fairtrade producers, our voice is heard and taken into account. We are treated with the respect and dignity we deserve. Stopping the relationship with Fairtrade is to silence our voices”
Michael Gidney, CEO of the Fairtrade Foundation UK said: “Fairtrade exists to represent farmer voices, standing beside them as they fight for their rights. We stand behind farmers as they applaud the benefits of the decade long partnership with Nestlé and as they ask Nestlé to reconsider this course of action at this time. Now, more than ever we need to act as a global community and take actions that are steps forward as we build a better future. As many businesses are scaling up commitments to Fairtrade, more farmers are benefitting from the uniqueness of Fairtrade and more shoppers in the UK able to choose from around 1,000 different Fairtrade chocolate varieties.
“We urge Nestlé: listen to farmers, do not choose this moment of global crisis to exacerbate the inequalities in the cocoa industry. Be part of the solution and keep KitKat Fairtrade.”
Our top picks for Easter
Even in these extraordinarily difficult times, it will still be Easter in a couple of weeks. By choosing Fairtrade chocolate this Easter you can help support farmers and workers around the world by sharing some hope and love a little bit further.
Here are our top picks to buy this Easter. There is something here to satisfy each of the chocoholics in your life. From luxury dark chocolate to silky milk chocolate and cute bunnies there is something for everyone. By choosing Fairtrade you can enjoy your chocolate eggs with a good conscience, knowing that you are benefiting both the producers and the planet.
Green & Blacks Organic Butterscotch Easter egg
Fairtrade and Organic, Green & Blacks 70% Dark Chocolate Egg, an Easter egg that we can’t resist adding to our favourites. Available in Super Value and Tesco Nationwide.
Award-Winning ‘Exploding Tree’
These Fairtrade Bunnies are handmade from bean-to-bunny and hand wrapped with love in our little home studio. All bunnies are suitable for Diabetics and all Bunnies are made with coconut sugar.
Where to buy https://explodingtree.com/
Aldi, Moser Roth Delectable Duo Egg
A tale of 2 halves. One side single origin Ghanaian Milk Chocolate, the other a choice of either Belgian White & Feuilletine or 72% Dark Ecuador with Superfruits.
Available in Aldi Nationwide
Chocolate & Love
Panama Gift Box, Comes with a beautiful Easter sleeve all ready wrapped so you don’t have to! Contains 4 x 40g bars, one each of Rich Dark 71%, Panama 80%, Sea Salt 55%, Pomegranate 70%
Lidl, Extra Premium Easter Egg
A decorated honeycomb flavour dark chocolate egg with gold lustre and honeycomb pieces.
Available in Lidl Nationwide
Maltesers Easter Egg
Maltesers Medium Easter Egg. A hollow milk chocolate egg with a full-size bag of Maltesers, full of crunchy delight!
Where to buy – Available in stores nationwide
Mini Eggs – Tony’s Chocolonely
Tony’s Chocolonely is perfect for anyone finding it difficult to choose which egg to go for, made with Belgian Fairtrade dark, dark milk and milk chocolate with almond, hazelnut, pretzel pieces, caramel, nougat and sea salt. The bonus is that it is all plastic free, recyclable packaging.
Available in Fresh Stores, Brown Thomas and Avoca.
Divine 70% Cocoa Dark Chocolate with Raspberries Easter Egg
Deliciously rich smooth dark chocolate with bursts of real raspberries in a thick chocolate shell. Suitable for vegans.
Available in Holland and Barret
Government’s Basket Needs More Fairtrade!
Government’s Basket Needs More Fairtrade!
Irish General Election 2020 – Briefing Note: Fairtrade Ireland
Issues, Opportunities and Responsibilities: Irish Government support needed for fairer trade, sustainable development, climate mitigation and a just transition for marginalised producers.
24th January 2020
In the same way as for Irish citizens and companies, the Irish Government has responsibilities to ensure that it does not harm to the most vulnerable people on the planet.
And it should do a lot more to support vulnerable farmers and workers who are at the receiving end of both climate impacts, and global supply chain pressures, in many of the poorest communities in the world.
This responsibility to do no harm, and ideally to do a lot more than that includes areas like:
• how the Government earns money through its taxation policies;
• how our tax money is spent on day to day items like coffee and tea in fair and sustainable procurement policies.
• how the Government co-invests our overseas aid budget to ensure support for livelihood improvement, climate mitigation strategies and fairer trade.
• how the Government ensures powerful interests like commercial companies in Ireland are held accountable for safeguarding human rights and the environment in their global supply chains.
ISSUES and OPPORTUNITIES – 1)
How the Government earns money…
…And the need to review how the Irish Government imposes Levies and Taxes on products from marginalised producers?
In its consultation on environmental levies, the previous Government were proposing to bring in a levy on disposable cups at the rate of 0.10cent, 0.15cent or 0.25cent per disposable cup. According to the Government funded, Recycling List Ireland, there are over 200 million disposable cups used in a year. Income from the ‘Latte Levy’ was to be used for building re-cycling and composting infrastructural capacity around the country – and as a disincentive to mindless consumption creating non-degradable waste. They believed that with a suite of incentives, disincentives; cultural change and new facilities, we could significantly reduce the use of plastic cups – much as the plastic bag tax massively reduced the amount of plastic bags in use.
Using a conservative estimate of only 100 million of the 200 million disposable cups used a year being filled with coffee, the 0.15 cent Latte Levy per cup will earn the Government EUR15 million for work on improving the Irish environment.
We estimate that coffee farmers would earn about EUR3 million.
Unlike many food stuffs sold at wholesale and retail, which are charged at zero VAT rates – hot beverages like coffee, are mostly charged at 13.5% VAT.
VAT adds no value or greater sustainability to coffee farming communities. It adds wealth to the Irish people. This tax needs to be looked at in the context of the Irish Government’s new and important overseas aid commitment, to helping the ‘poorest first’ and to ‘leaving no one behind’.
As a conservative estimate for example, the Government will earn EUR24 million just from the VAT on the sale of these 100 million cups of coffee.
If we add the Latte Levy of 0.15 cent on to the one hundred million cups, or EUR15 million, together they add up to EUR39 million in taxes and levies earned by the Government – and less than EUR3 million for the coffee farmers.
The Irish Government needs to develop policy coherence between its taxation, sustainable development and development policies to promote a just transition for poorer countries and their producers. If VAT and environmental levies are going to be imposed, this income should partly be used to support a new Sustainability Fund in Irish Aid as well as supporting work on Irish environmental issues.
ISSUES and OPPORTUNITIES – 2)
How the Government’s daily spend affects marginalised producers..
…And the Need For A Fair Environmental and Social Government Procurement Policy
In 2019 the previous Government instituted a public consultation in advance of issuing new Guidelines on Environmental and Social procurement. Irish Government procurement accounts for about 12% of GDP and can have a huge impact on sustainability issues as a result.
The rate of growth in consumer spending in Ireland on Fairtrade products was the highest in the world in 2017, In 2018 Fairtrade banana and coffee volumes again grew by over 17% and consumer spend in 2018 was worth over EUR380 million.
The Irish Government needs to follow the example of both Irish companies and people. When it talks about supporting the achievement of the UN Sustainable Development Goals, one measureable way of doing this is by having a fair trade procurement policy enshrined in Government procurement policy.
The Irish Government needs to ensure that Government Departments and agencies support fair trade in their tendering and contracts.
A guide to Fairtrade and public procurement in Ireland can be found here:
ISSUES and OPPORTUNITIES – 3)
How Irish Aid co-invests in Climate Change mitigation and Livelihoods support for marginalised producers..
… And the need to align development support with fairer trade, and the sustainable development concerns of Irish citizens and companies.
Previous Irish Governments have made significant investments through the Irish Aid programme in promoting more sustainable and fairer trade. In the ten years between 2008 and 2016 Irish Aid invested about EUR20 million in four countries in East Africa; Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda as well as in Central America. This programme was widely believed to have been very successful.
A review of the Irish Aid programme by the Natural Resources Institute in Greenwich University found:
‘The challenges of global food security, climate change and economic development, are significant and require rural transitions – with more than individual farm plot interventions, not least because so many smallholder plots are too small to be viable. Land ownership issues are sensitive, but rural transitions need to be supported so that they are equitable. Wider changes are needed: in the scale of production, farm organisation, processing, new technologies and supply chain development and the creation of employment with living wages for agricultural workers and participatory land use planning.’
‘Is funding of fair and ethical trade systems is still relevant?’
‘Yes. Fair and ethical trade systems (which we also term voluntary sustainability standards) are highly relevant to the Irish Aid policies of tackling poverty and hunger, improving productivity, supporting trade and economic growth. Support to fair and ethical trade should form one component of a coherent response to the global challenges facing agriculture (food security, climate change, environmental degradation, employment, urbanization and economic growth etc.).’
Future Irish Governments should ensure that support for fair trade is again an integral part of Irish Aid’s investments in sustainable development, climate mitigation, gender empowerment and more equitable trade.
A copy of Irish Aid’s external review of its last Fair and Ethical trade programme can be sent on request.
ISSUE 4) How the Government holds companies accountable for human rights in their supply chains…
.. and the need for Mandatory Reporting on Human Rights and the environment.
Fairtrade Ireland supports the development of a UN binding treaty on business and human rights to regulate, in international law, the activities of transnational corporations and other business enterprises. Within this we support calls for EU regulation of companies’ impact on human rights in their supply chains.
As a first step we are asking the Government to support the growing calls for the introduction of an EU regulatory framework for cocoa entering the EU market. and to support the Governments of cocoa producing countries, in a wide range of measures needed to make the cocoa industry sustainable.
In December 2019, Fairtrade International co-signed a joint position paper calling for the European Union to implement a regulatory approach to sustainable cocoa, along with many of the largest chocolate companies in the world; Barry Callebaut, Mars, Mondelez, as well as the Rainforest Alliance and the VOICE Network. The joint position paper calls for the EU to enact legislation that requires all companies placing cocoa or cocoa products on the EU market to enact mandatory due diligence on human rights, child labour and the effects of cocoa production on the environment.
We consider this joint statement as an important step to the stated ultimate aim of the signatories: a living income for cocoa farmers.
North Brunswick Street
Te: 01 475 35 15
Public Consultation on the Proposed Introduction of New Environmental Levies
‘Coffee Cup’ levy proposal at 0.15 cent per cup
The proposed ‘coffee cup’ levy is really a levy on single-use disposable cups and is being proposed both as a disincentive for consumers to pay extra for the cup and as a means of generating income to be used by the Environment Fund to build re-cycling and composting infrastructure in Ireland. This would allow any remaining disposable cups in the future to be recycled or composted. It is presumed that the levy, alongside other measures, would greatly reduce the estimated 200, 000,000 disposable cups used every year.
Within the debate on single-use plastic generally, the disposable ‘paper’ coffee cup has acquired totemic significance. According to the Government-funded, Recycling List Ireland, there are over 200 million disposable cups used in a year. (The plastic in the paper cup is the coating on the inside to allow the cup to hold hot beverages.)
Cleaning up our environment at the expense of coffee farmers and their environment? Based on current New York Coffee Exchange prices of about US$2.99 a kg, a coffee farmer receives less than EUR0.03 cent of a EUR2.00 cup of coffee. (In reality, they get less than this.)
Using a conservative guestimate of only 100 million of the 200 million disposable cups used a year being filled with coffee, and at a price per cup of EUR2.00, the Latte Levy at 0.15 cent per cup will earn the Government EUR15 million for work on improving the Irish environment. Using the same figure of 100 million cups the coffee farmers will receive less than EUR3 million.
The Irish Government and environment would receive five times as much from the Latte Levy at 0.15cent a cup, as the coffee growers receive for their coffee.
A New Sustainability Fund needed alongside Environment Fund Given the ongoing crises facing millions of coffee farmers related to unsustainably low prices and increasing impacts from climate change, it is imperative that any income earned from a Latte Levy be shared equally between support for coffee farmers’ adaptation strategies, and support for work on the Irish environment.
A new Sustainability Fund needs to be established in the context of the Irish Government’s new overseas Aid Policy and important commitments to helping the ‘poorest first’ and to ‘leaving no one behind’.
The Sustainability Fund created in Irish Aid to support coffee farmers and their environments – would be a significant signal from the Irish Government that it wants to align its development policies at home and overseas. It would create a clear message that helping to facilitate a just transition is at the core of Ireland’s environment, development and climate policies.
The Sustainability Fund would be used to help coffee farmers and their organisations build resilience to climate change impacts, to help them receive fairer prices for their coffee, and to mitigate against deforestation in coffee-growing communities.
From: Fairtrade Ireland, Carmichael, North Brunswick Street, Dublin 7. Ph: 01 475 3515;
Contact: Peter Gaynor, Executive Director, firstname.lastname@example.org